September 2022

Partow Technologies Uses Dynaqual™ Diamond Slurry

Written by Thom Chang, Sales Engineer

Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is the embodiment of human ingenuity. It is a manmade crystal of niobium, oxygen, and lithium. Remeika is often credited with growing the first large LiNbO3 single crystal around 1949. LiNbO3 crystal has a high melting point, 1,257 °C, to be exact and is colorless. Its high transparency window, non-centrosymmetric property, high Curie temperature (~1200 °C), and acoustic property make LiNbO3 crystal a great candidate for applications in photonics. As a matter of fact, LiNbO3 modulators are widely used in fiberoptic communications.

Despite its remarkable characteristics, LiNbO3 remained a material found in bulky devices due to its difficulties in processing and integration in the decades following Remeika’s crystal growth. Thin-film LiNbO3 with ridge waveguides, on the other hand, can achieve large index contrast and superb mode confinement, and at the same time, making miniaturization of host devices possible. For example, the acoustic index of the speed of sound inside thin-film LiNbO3 is higher than that of sapphire and radio frequency filtering in cell phones becomes possible. However, the fabrication of thin-film LiNbO3 and its ridge waveguides had been plagued with technical difficulties and inconsistencies in quality - until the dawn of the 21st century and now.

Rabiei of Partow Technologies was among the first few to produce high-quality LiNbO3 thin film with the use of crystal ion slicing and direct bonding in early 2000s. The “Smart-Cut” technology eliminates the inconsistencies of making LiNbO3 thin films with deposit or growth methods. After the LiNbO3 thin film is created by splitting with thermal annealing, polishing is needed to smooth out the thin-film surface. At the Lapping and Polishing Lab at Qual Diamond, we are able to achieve roughness of 0.5 nm in a one-step polishing procedure on thin-film LiNbO3 using Dynaqual™ polycrystalline diamond slurry with particle size of 1 μm and Qual Diamond QDTXD polishing pad.

Ridge waveguides can also be achieved by mechanical means. Can Dynaqual™ diamond slurry generate functional ridge waveguides? One way to find out is to contact for a free sample!

August 2022

New Polishing Products To Be Launched At Ceramics Expo 2022

New polishing products will be launched at Ceramics Expo 2022 in Cleveland, Ohio, August 30-31. Stop by Qual Diamond Booth 813 to find out more and pick up a free sample or two. We look forward to seeing you in Cleveland!

July 2022

Optics Technology Uses Qual Diamond Diamond Slurry

Written By Thom Chang, Sales Engineer

Optics Technology is an East Coast (Pittsford, NY) company founded by Mr. Jim Anderson in 1986. Optics Technology specializes in designing and manufacturing one-of-a-kind precision micro-optical and mechanical systems and assemblies. Over the decades, Optics Technology has worked on projects in aerospace, medical equipment, communication components, defense, and microscopy optical systems and won numerous awards.

Mr. Jim Anderson was a pupil of Mr. Martin Herbert Eisenhart. The Eisenhart family is a well-known, prominent American family. Mr. Martin Eisenhart’s brother, Mr. Luther Pfahler Eisenhart was a professor of mathematics at Princeton University and a great scientist who published influential works. Mr. Martin Eisenhart himself was a graduate of both Princeton University and MIT. After receiving his Chemical Engineering degree from MIT, he went to work for Eastman Kodak and then Bausch & Lomb, an optical manufacturer in Rochester, NY in those days, where he became the president of the company in 1935. The Eisenhart brothers’ father, Mr. Charles Augustus Eisenhart, was also an overachiever. He was a founder of the Edison Electric Light Company and York Telephone Company.

Back to present-day America - Optics Technology’s president, Mr. John Warda, was at SPIE Optifab 2021 Exhibition and stopped by Qual Diamond’s exhibition booth. Samples of Hydroqual and Dynaqual diamond slurries and polishing pads were eventually delivered to Optics Technology for testing on various applications. Optics Technology’s production manager, Mr. Ben Piatt, was delighted by the results on stainless-steel mirrors used in the aerospace industry and made the following comments: “I am very impressed by both your diamond slurry and polishing pads. I have received many samples from vendors in the past and have never had a diamond/pad combination that achieves optical quality surfaces on the stainless-steel mirrors I make. Your products are the first that have.”

To learn more about Optics Technology and its award-winning services, visit or speak with John Warda at 585.586.0950.

To learn more about Qual Diamond and its nanotech-driven products, visit or speak with Thom Chang at 858.348.7092.