A variety of materials can be polished using polishing pads to render great surface finishes. They include copper, tungsten, silicon carbide, sapphire, oxides, and ultra-hard nitrides.
Lapping of materials such as glass, crystals, advanced ceramics/composite materials, and metals is often achieved using iron, copper, steel, or metal-resin plate. While these lapping plates do not cost a lot to replace, replacing them often can create constraints on a budget.
Pitch polishing is often used to achieve tight tolerances for surface flatness, surface roughness, parallelism, and cosmetics on a variety of materials.
Synthetic single crystal sapphire, transparent spinel ceramic, and silicon carbide are essential advanced materials for semiconductor and other industries due to their unique properties. Despite all the attractive features of these advanced materials, the high degree of hardness of these materials makes lapping and polishing difficult.